Iranian architecture is more than 6000 years old which crossed geographical boundaries. In addition, we can see many works based on the principles of Iranian architecture in other parts of the world . Despite all the temporary changes caused by internal conflicts and foreign invasions, Persian Art has retained its unique style.
Persian art that includes the rich heritages in world, which is strong in many fields of art such as architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and sculpture. In this article, we aim to explain about Iranian Architecture, different styles and its characteristics that gazed many visitors’ eyes to its beauty and mysteries.
Iranian architecture has a special value compared to the architecture of other countries of the world and features such as proper design, accurate calculations, correct form of coating, observance of technical and scientific issues in the building, high porches, tall columns and finally various decorations while simplicity are a sign of its glory.
Some architectural researchers consider the positive position of space or “space-based” of Iranian architecture against “volumetric” as the most important feature of Iranian architecture. In Iranian architecture, in addition to characteristics such as the proportion and beauty of the servers, domes and verandas, the use of mathematical and mystical logic is also seen.
Iranian architectural characteristics generally include introversion, avoidance of futility, people-contentedness, self-reliance and materialism.
Iranian Architecture’ Feature
Architecture in Iran dates back to at least 5,000 BC. It has a great variety in its features structurally and aesthetically which in compare with other countries has a special high value. Suitable design, detailed calculations, remarkable vaults and arches, glorious domes, huge porches and columns, diverse ornaments are simple but represent the glory of Iran.
Iran Architecture has an especial character which needs more worth to study. It is the mystical and mathematical logic of Persian Art which makes it different from other countries. Iranian architects tend to be Introversion that caused them to pay an especial attention to the yard, patio, sunken garden, porch and caps.
Principles of Iranian Architecture
Iranian architecture have a number of principles, including: people’s self-esteem, avoidance of futility, selfishness, self-sufficiency, and introspection.
Variants: Means that the fit between the building and human organs, for example, the door, window, shelf, and slab used for the storage room, were all of the proper size.
Avoidance of futility: Iranian architecture avoided futile work in construction. In fact, all the paintings in the building were done for a reason; for example, if they were knotted in wood or plaster or colored glass in the orchestra and window, so, it would be sheltered from the harsh and sometimes scorching sun not to disturb the eyes.
Niaresh: The role of static, building technique and structure (materials) is called.
Self-sufficiency: Iranian architects tried to get the materials that they needed from the nearest places because construction work was done more quickly and the building was more environmentally friendly.
Introversion: It has often been instrumental in organizing the building spaces of people’s beliefs. One of the beliefs of the Iranian is to value personal life and the dignity that has intrigued it into Iranian architecture.
Categorization of styles of Iranian Architecture
Iranian architecture is divided into 6 styles; Farsi, Parthian, Khorasani, Razi, Azeri and Isfahani which are in different shape, styles and appearance in each era.
- Persian style (up until the third century BC)
- Parthian style
Persian Art after Islam:
- Khorasani style
- Razi style
- Azari style
- Isfahani style
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